The Pratyabhijñā school of nondual Kashmiri Śaivism, created by Utpaladeva (c. 900–c. 950 CE) and Abhinavagupta (c. 950–c. 1025 CE), was the most salient philosophical tradition to emerge from Hindu Tantra. The Pratyabhijñā epistemology interprets the God Śiva’s emanation and control of the universe through his power and consort Śakti as self-recognition which transcendentally grounds human knowledge. The ontology conceives being or existence as constituted by God’s action. Other noteworthy features of the Pratyabhijñā are theorization on the relation of philosophical rationality and religion, the semantics and syntax of agency and indexicals, philosophical psychology, and epistemic diversity.
Kashmir Shaivism claimed to supersede Shaiva Siddhanta, a dualistic tradition which scholars consider normative tantric Shaivism. The Shaiva Siddhanta goal of becoming an ontologically distinct Shiva (through Shiva’s grace) was replaced by recognizing oneself as Shiva who, in Kashmir Shaivism’s monism, is the entirety of the universe.
To attain moksha, sādhana or spiritual practice is necessary. Kashmir Shaivism describes four methods:
As a monistic tantric system, Trika Shaivism, as it is also known, draws teachings from shrutis, such as the monistic Bhairava Tantras, Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta, and also a unique version of the Bhagavad Gītā which has a commentary by Abhinavagupta, known as the Gitartha Samgraha. Teachings are also drawn from the Tantrāloka of Abhinavagupta, prominent among a vast body of smritis employed by Kashmir Shaivism.
In general, the whole written tradition of Shaivism can be divided in three fundamental parts: Āgama Śāstra, Spanda Śāstra and Pratyabhijñā Śāstra.